Orthodox Saints of the Pre-Schism See of Rome
ARSATIUS (ARSACIUS), a saint of whom nothing certain is known. St. Arsatius has been variously described as a disciple of St. Ambrose of Milan (29th June), a Bishop of Milan (north-west Italy), and possibly a martyr. He is believed to have flourished in either the fourth or sixth century. The existence of his relics was recorded in the early eighth century, they were translated in 766 to the Abbey of St. Arsatius (Kloster Ilmmünster) at Ilmmünster in Upper Bavaria (southern Germany), then in 1495 to Munich Bavaria (southern Germany), and returned to Ilmmünster in 1846 where they remain to this day.
ASTERICUS (ASTRICUS, ASCRICK) of ESZTERGOM, a monk who accompanied St. Adalbert (23rd April) on mission to Bohemia (western Czech Republic). Appointed first Abbot of Brevnov Monastery, St. Astericus was forced to flee to Hungary to escape anti-Christian persecution. When the father of St. Stephen (16th August), King of Hungary (r. 997–1038), Prince Geza, founded Pannonhalma Abbey (western Hungary), St. Astericus was selected to serve as its first Abbot, and later was the first Archbishop of the Hungarian Church. St. Astericus reposed circa 1035.
BENEDICT, JOHN, MATTHEW, ISAAC, and CHRISTINUS (CHRISTIAN), Five Polish Brothers, neither Polish nor brothers, these five men were monks from Italy who accompanied St. Adalbert of Prague (23rd April) on one of his missions to Poland where they were murdered in 1005 by thieves at their monastery near Gnesen (central-western Poland).
CADWALLADER, traditionally known as the last ‘king of the Britons’, and founder of the church at Llangadwaladr on Anglesey, little is known of St. Cadwallader’s life. He reposed from the plague; however, sources differ on the year with 664 the most likely. St. Cadwallader should not be confused with the Anglo-Saxon St. Ceadwalla (Cadwalla); whose feast day is 20th April.
CUMMIAN FADA (CUMMÉNE FOTA), an important Irish theologian of the mid-seventh century. Said to have been a member of the leading dynasty or perhaps even the son of the king of West Munster, and possibly a foster-son of St. Ita of Killeedy (15th January). St. Cummian received monastic tonsure at Clonfert Monastery and served as Lector at the school there. He went on to serve as the founding Abbot-Bishop of a monastery at Kilcummin, in present-day Co. Mayo. An ardent advocate of the Roman practice for calculating Easter (vide Paschal Controversy), he is best remembered for his De controversia Paschali, which demonstrates his expansive knowledge. It is possible that he was the author of a commentary on the Gospel of Mark, and highly likely that he wrote a computistical manual (which is heavily cited in De Ratione Conputandi — a computistical manual by an unknown author). In addition, it is believed that St. Cummian may be the author of a penitential, and a hymn on the apostles under the nom de plume of Cummianus Longus. St. Cummian reposed in 662 and was buried at Clonfert. In 1162, his relics were translated from their grave to a shrine also at Clonfert.
CUNIBERT of COLOGNE, a member of the Frankish aristocracy, who, in 627, was consecrated Bishop of Colonia Agrippina (the Roman colony from which the present-day city of Cologne Germany evolved). St. Cunibert’s episcopacy is remembered for its flourishing monasticism and building and restoration of churches. He reposed circa 663, and is buried at St. Kunibert's Church, Cologne.
EMILIAN (ÆMILIAN) CUCULLATUS (the COWLED), a shepherd in La Rioja in Navarre (northern Spain), who at the age of twenty became a hermit. After several decades, at the insistence of his bishop, St. Emilian was ordained to the priesthood and assigned to a parish. It soon became obvious this was not his forte, and he returned to the life of a hermit. This time a group of disciples began to form a community around him which in time became the monastery of San Millán de Suso in San Millán de la Cogolla, La Rioja, Spain. St. Emilian reposed in 574.
EVODIUS of LE PUY, a Bishop of Le Puy (south-central France) who reposed circa 560. No further information on his life is extant.
HIMERIUS (IMIER) of IMMERTAL, (Early Seventh Century), a hermit, and missionary in the present-day Bernese Jura of Switzerland. A community grew up around his hermitage which is now the village of Val-Saint-Imier in the Swiss Canton of Bern.
LEBUIN (LEAFWINE, LEBUINUS) of DEVENTER, Apostle of the Frisians, a monk at Ripon Abbey in Yorkshire, England who went to Frisia (present-day Netherlands) to take part in the work begun by St. Boniface of Mainz (5th June) of evangelising the Frisians. Working with St. Marcellinus (14th July) and St. Gregory of Utrecht (25th August) he founded the first church in Deventer (eastern Netherlands) from which he based his mission to the Saxons and the Frisians. St. Lebuin is one of the Apostles of the Frisians and is the patron saint of Deventer. He reposed circa 773.
MACHAR (MACHARIUS, MOCHUMNA) of ABERDEEN, (Sixth Century), a native of Ireland, who, after being baptised by St. Colman of Lindisfarne (18th February), became a disciple of St. Columba of Iona (9th June), joining him on his journey to Iona, as one of the band of Irish monks who played an integral role in the Enlightening of Scotland. At Iona, St. Machar was consecrated bishop and, accompanied by twelve monks, sent to the northeast where they laboured to enlighten the Picts.
NAMPHASIUS (NAMPHRASE), a friend of Charlemagne, King of the Franks (r. 768–814), who after a career as a soldier became a hermit near Marcillac in Aquitaine (south-western France). St. Namphasius reposed circa 800.
PATERNUS of SENS, a Breton who was a monk at Cessier in the Diocese of Avranches in Normandy (north-western France), and then at Saint-Pierre-le-Vif in the Diocese of Sens (north-central France). St. Paternus was murdered circa 726 by villains whom he had counselled to reform their ways.
RENATUS (RENÉ) of ANGERS, a Bishop of Angers (western France). According to some traditions St. Renatus was also the Bishop of Sorrento (south-western Italy), though owing to the improbability of him holding both positions scholars believe these were occupied by two different men of the same name. St. Renatus reposed circa 422.
RUFUS of AVIGNON, the first Bishop of Avignon (south-eastern France), he reposed circa 200. There is no further reliable information about him extant.
SINELL (SINNELL) of CLEENISH, the founder and first Abbot of a monastery on Cleenish Island, in present-day Lough Erne in Co. Fermanagh, Ulster. Many writers have said St. Sinell was one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland, apparently confusing him with St. Senan of Inniscathay (8th March) who actually was one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland. The date of St. Sinnell’s repose is not known; however, based upon the dates his disciples SS. Columbanus of Babbio (23rd November), and Fintan Munnu of Taghmon (21st October) flourished, it is safe to assume he reposed towards the middle of the sixth century.
YMAR of RECULVER, a monk at the Monastery of St. Mary (the Theotokos) at Reculver in Kent, England. St. Ymar was martyred by invading Danes circa 830. Nothing further is known of his life.
Prior to the Schism the Patriarchate of Rome was Orthodox, and fully in communion with the Orthodox Church. As Saint John of Shanghai and San Francisco +1966 said “The West was Orthodox for a thousand years, and her venerable Liturgy is far older than any of her heresies”.