Orthodox Saints of the Pre-Schism See of Rome
ARESIUS, ROGATIUS, and COMPANIONS, Martyrs of North Africa, (Date Unknown), seventeen African martyrs, of whom nothing further is known, though some martyrologies include them with SS. Basilides, Tripos, Mandal, and Companions (vide infra).
BARDO of MAINZ, St. Bardo received monastic tonsure at Fulda Abbey (Kloster Fulda) in the present-day German state of Hesse, then was made Abbot of Werden Abbey (Kloster Werden), in Essen on the Ruhr (Germany) in 1029. Two years later, St. Bardo was consecrated Metropolitan Archbishop of Mainz (Germany). Throughout his life St. Bardo was known for his asceticism, care for the poor, and his gift of clairvoyance. St. Bardo reposed circa 1052.
BASILIDES, TRIPOS, MANDAL, and COMPANIONS, Martyrs of the Aurelian Way, a group of Christians numbering twenty-three who were martyred on the Aurelian Way during the reign of Emperor Aurelian (r. 270–275). The paucity of facts regarding the lives of these saints has led the hagiographic scholars of the Société des Bollandistes, amongst other authorities, to consider the possibility that this St. Basilides is in fact the better known St. Basilides of 12th June, who was also martyred on the Aurelian Way.
CENSURIUS of AUXERRE, consecrated the successor of St. Germanus (31st July) in 448 as Bishop of Auxerre in Burgundy (France). St. Censurius served that See for thirty-eight years until his repose in 486.
CRISPULUS and RESTITUTUS of ROME, martyrs during the reign of Emperor Nero (r. 54–68). There is no information on their lives extant. Most authorities place their martyrdom in Rome, though ninth century theologian, polymath, and Archbishop of Mainz, Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (†856) posits their martyrdom took place in Spain, which ecclesiastical historian Caesar Cardinal Baronius (†1607) concurs with in his work.
EVERMUND (EBREMUND) of FONTENAY, the married founder of several monasteries, including the Abbey of Our Lady of Fontenay-Louvet (abbaye Notre-Dame de Fontenay-Louvet) in present-day Fontenai-les-Louvets, Normandy, France. By mutual agreement, St. Evermund and his wife separated to live as monastics. St. Evermund received monastic tonsure at Fontenay-Louvet, later serving as its Abbot. He reposed circa 720.
GETULIUS, CAEREALIS, AMANTIUS, and PRIMITIVUS of TIVOLI, St. Getulius was the husband of St. Symphorosa (18th July), and brother of St. Amantius. Both St. Getulius and St. Amantius had been officers in the Imperial Roman Army, and very publicly converted to Christianity. This infuriated Emperor Hadrian (r. 117–138) to no end, and he sent the officers SS. Caerealis and Primitivus to arrest SS. Getulius and Amantius. However, they converted SS. Caerealis and Primitivus which resulted in all four being clubbed to death circa 120.
ILLADAN (ILLATHAN, IOLLADHAN) of RATHLIBTHIEN, St. Illadan was an Abbot-Bishop (possibly the first) of Rathlibthien in present-day Co. Offaly, Ireland. There is no information on his life extant except for mention in the Life of his disciple St. Áed mac Bricc (10th November). St. Illadan most probably reposed circa 540.
ITHAMAR of ROCHESTER, St. Ithamar succeeded St. Paulinus (10th October) as Bishop of Rochester in England. Born in Kent, he was the first native English bishop. St. Bede the Venerable (25th May) takes pains to point out that whilst St. Ithamar was “of the Kentish nation, but not inferior to his predecessors for learning and conduct of life”. St. Ithamar reposed circa 656.
LANDERICUS of NOVALESE, a monk at the Abbey of SS. Peter and Andrew (abbazia dei Santi Pietro e Andrea) in present-day Novalesa, Italy. A gang of robbers, whom St. Landericus apparently had chastised, martyred him by drowning in a near-by river circa 1050.
LANDRY (LANDERICUS) of PARIS, shortly after his consecration as Bishop of Paris in 650, St. Landry observing that disease often caused death and frequent epidemics, concluded that keeping the ill in an organised centre would not only facilitate better care, but also reduce the risk of diseases spreading. Towards this end, St. Landry founded the Hospital of St. Christopher next to the Cathedral of Notre Dame. Hôtel-Dieu de Paris as it is now known was the first hospital in Paris, and is the oldest hospital in continuous operation in the world. In addition, St. Landry encouraged the founding of monasteries in his See. He reposed circa 661.
MAURINUS of COLOGNE, (Date Unknown), during reconstruction in 966 of the Abbey Church of Saint Pantaleo at Cologne (Germany) builders discovered a tomb with the inscription “Here lie the bones of Saint Maurinus, Abbot and Martyr, who was martyred in the porch of this church on June 10.” Upon examination, the relics showed signs of torture, and that he suffered a violent death. As German hagiographer and church historian Laurentius Surius (†1578) has documented, many miracles were experienced by those who sought St. Maurinus’ intercession at his tomb. Soon a popular cultus developed in Cologne, and St. Maurinus was added to martyrologies from then on.
MAXIMUS of NAPLES, (Fourth Century), consecrated Bishop of Naples in 359, St. Maximus spent most of his episcopacy in exile for defending the decrees of the First Œcumenical Council (325) against the Arian rulers. St. Maximus reposed circa 361, and is venerated as a martyr.
Prior to the Schism the Patriarchate of Rome was Orthodox, and fully in communion with the Orthodox Church. As Saint John of Shanghai and San Francisco +1966 said “The West was Orthodox for a thousand years, and her venerable Liturgy is far older than any of her heresies”.